#### Why estimate the inertial parameters of a load attached to a manipulator?

Many robotics applications require knowledge of specific properties of a robot end-effector or a gripped object, e.g. its mass, shape, or elasticity. Other parameters of a load - like its complete set of inertial properties - have attracted less attention so far. However, many robotics applications may benefit from knowing the inertial parameters of the load that is attached to the robot. The mass, the coordinates of the center of mass (COM) and the inertia matrix of an object may be employed to

- eliminate all inertial forces and associated torques acting on a moved robot load, e.g. gravity and centrifugal forces, in order to improve force control in dynamic situations
- recognize objects based on their inertial properties (and complementary information like geometric)
- estimate the gripping pose of an object, e.g. to calculate a corrective movement in adaptive assembly tasks.

In order to obtain an estimate of the inertial parameters of a load (including its inertia matrix), the object has to be moved, and forces and torques acting on the object have to measured simultaneously. Based on the fundamental Newton and Euler equations, the inertial parameters may be estimated. However, the estimation process also requires the angular velocity, angular acceleration, and linear acceleration of the load apart from forces and torques. A simplified block diagram of the approach sketched below is shown in the following figure.